What Is DNS? Usage And Common DNS Server Types

What Is DNS? Usage And Common DNS Server Types

In fact, in the world of technology in general and website design in particular, even those who do not specialize in information technology have heard or known of this acronym.

But I’m also pretty sure that when you find this article, or you’re starting to learn about the concept of DNS from zero. Or you’re struggling with dozens of vague, sublime, but confusing information. from multiple sources.

But don’t worry me and you will sit down to share all the general information about DNS after you buy the domain name as well as the huge effects of this system on the Internet.

Let’s get started now!


So what is DNS?


DNS (Domain Name System) or domain name resolution system. Can be explained as a system that helps people and computers communicate with each other more easily.

Because our communication language is names and letters, computers can only understand numbers! The system helps to translate domain names (hostnames) into sequences of numbers so that the computer can understand them.


In general, the goal of DNS is relatively simple. Just make it easier for people to remember long, confusing numbers. But its role is very important in the 4.0 era – an era where connections are growing.

It will become even more important as IPv6 (6th Gen Internet Protocol) becomes popular, replacing IPv4 like with something like fdf8: 82e4:: 53.

Function of DNS

Domain name system is like a phone book. That means instead of you having to remember dozens of numbers with a bunch of numbers. Then you just need to remember the name of the phone number owner.

In that case, the phone number will correspond to the IP address of the Website, and the owner is the domain name of the website.

For example: when you type “www.google.com” into the browser, the DNS server will take the Google server address “”. You will then see the Google home page load the page on the browser you are using. That is the DNS resolution process.

Well, in addition, each DNS also has the function of remembering the domain names that it has resolved and in subsequent visits, it will give priority to use.

That is why you use many network services such as information research, watching movies, and playing entertainment games… quickly and easily.


How DNS works

DNS works step by step according to its structure. The first step is a query to retrieve information called a “DNS query”.

Back to the example of searching for the website www.google.com in the web browser!

→ First, the DNS server will look for resolution information in the host’s file – the text file in the operating system – responsible for converting hostnames to IPs.

If you don’t see the information, it will go back to the cache – the hardware or software cache. The most common place to store this information is your browser’s cache and ISP cache (Internet Service Providers).

If you do not receive the information, you will see an error code appear.

Types of DNS Server and roles

In fact, there are about 4 servers in total in the domain name resolution system, including:

Root Name Servers

Also commonly known as the Name Server. This is the most important server in the hierarchy of DNS. You can also understand that Root Name Server is a library to search for you.

Following the actual process, after receiving a request from DNS Recursive Resolver. The Root Name Server will respond that it should look at specific top-level domain name servers (TLD Name Servers).

DNS Recursor

As mentioned above, this hardware acts as a diligent employee, taking on the task of retrieving and returning information to the browser to find the right information they need.

In other words, DNS Recursor is responsible for liaising with other servers to respond to the user’s browser. Of course, in the process of obtaining information, sometimes it will also need the help of the Root DNS Server.

TLD Nameserver

When you want to access Google or Facebook, usually, your extension will be “.com”, right? So I want you to know that this is one of the Top-level Domains.

And the server for this type of Top-level domain is called TLD Nameserver. This is the manager of the entire information system of a common domain name extension.

In sequence, the TLD Name Server will respond from the DNS Resolver, then recommend it to an Authoritative DNS Server – or the official location of that domain’s data source.

Authoritative Nameserver

When DNS Resolver finds Authoritative Nameserver, that’s when domain name resolution takes place.

On the other hand, the Authoritative Name Server contains information that indicates the domain name associated with the address. It will give Recursive Resolver the necessary IP address found in its catalog of records.


What are the types of DNS records?

A Record

The simplest, most used DNS Record is to point Website names to a specific IP address.

You can add a new name, add Time to Live (automatic time to re-record), and Points to (Point to which IP).

CNAME Record

A record that acts as one or more other names for the primary domain.

You can create a new name, adjust what the original name is, and set TTL.

MX Record

A record that specifies which server manages the email services of that domain.

You can point the domain name to Mail Server, Set the priority, and set TTL.

TXT Record

A record to help you contain the domain’s text format information.

You can add new hosts, TXT values, TTL, and Points.

AAAA Record

The same as the A Record, however, the AAAA Record is used to point the domain to an IPV6 Address.

You can add new hosts, IPv6, and TTL.

NS Record

As the DNS Server Records the domain name, it allows you to assign a Name Server to each subdomain.

You can create a new host, named Name Server, TTL.

SRV Record

A special record in the Domain Name System is used to determine exactly which services run which port.

You can add Priority, Name, Port, Points to, Weight, and TTL.

Thank you for reading!

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